One of the main ones was the wrongly applied method of deep plowing used. The Chinese initially received significant help from the Soviet Union, but relations soon began to cool. This however is not true. (Spence, 1990) The Chinese utilized a method that was also applied in Eastern European Communist states. He was a Chinese revolutionary and a communist leader. He believed that this would be beneficial for the young people of China because they could learn proletarian values and the lifestyle. In 1934, after the KMT surrounded them, Mao led his followers on the 'Long March', a 6,000 mile journey to northwest China to establish a new base. "(Spence, 1990) The communes were used to group collective farms combined with local towns into huge centralized systems. He executed all that opposed his ideas. Mao Zedong (1893-1976) was both a product and a part of the revolutionary change in 20th-century China. In November of 1952, a committee was formed to supervise and direct the First Five Year Plan. The first Five-Year Plan for the future of China was launched by Mao Zedong in 1953, in which the Soviet Union was held up as the model for development. (Spence, 1990) Human rights at the time were annulled and many people were persecuted. For a brief period in the early 1960s, more pragmatic communist leaders like Liu Shaoqi ( pronounced Leo Sh-ao Chee ) and Deng Xiaoping , took control. From there on, Mao ruled with an "iron fist." The plans started after the completion of the first phase of the land reform campaign. "(Winnington, 1986) The Great Leap Forward was Mao's attempt to free himself from Soviet control and to speed up the advance towards communism. 2) Mao's wife, Jiang Qing was the one who urged Mao to start the Cultural Revolution. '"(Spence, 1990) The revolution was an attack on culture. "(Spence, 1990). With all of this though, Mao is still worshiped and praised in China today. In June 1981, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) issued an of cial judgment of Mao Zedong, assessing. In 1976 Mao passed away and lost power. "The average amount of grain available to each person in China's countryside, which had been 205 kilos in 1957 and 201 kilos in 1958, dropped to a disastrous 183 kilos in 1959, and a catastrophic 156 kilos in 1960." There were food shortages which led to strict rationing and ultimately this lead to famines. It was mainly focused on industrialization; with this plan, China saw a dramatic increase in the industrial production of goods. He started the Revolution in order to ensure the support of his followers, to recover from the Second Five Year Plan, and to bring China back onto the path of socialism. Therefore, they created a new part of the Chinese society, heralding the start of a revolution against the gentry as a social class in the country. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. The Second Five Year Plan did not go at all as planned and China's state was not very good at the time. The highest point of this radical program came in 1967 and it was given the name the "January power seizure." Mao's vision for China was to transform China into a "strong, prosperous, independent, modern industrial socialist state by combining effective leadership with participation by the people." For example, they used the Peking opera as an example to show that it could be revolutionized. "(Spence, 1990) The resultant was a famine that caused a great deal of damage. Lesser known is that Mao was also responsible for some very strange policies and downright shocking behavior in his personal life, as you’ll see in this list of 10 horrible facts about Mao. In 1972, US President Richard Nixon visited China and met Mao. The Cultural Revolution The effort by Mao Zedong to completely reform Communist China by eliminating traditional values and capitalist power What are we He wanted to do that through agriculturalizing, industrializing, and collectivizing. Despite the Great Leap was not very successful, it still brought on a several fundamental changes to China. Primary Sources Mao Zedong. Read more. He wanted to change the agrarian society that is China, into a modern communist society instead. The communes were no longer military-like, but instead they were administrative units. Mao Zedong (Dec. 26, 1893–Sept. "(Michael, 1977) Instead of an increase in production as was stated, there was actually a decline. Reference this. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! In 1923, the Kuomintang (KMT) nationalist party had allied with the CCP to defeat the warlords who controlled much of northern China. "(Suite 101, para. In 1958, Mao launched his second Five Year Plan, dubbed the Great … The people were to live together in barracks and they were to eat together in barrack mess halls with communal kitchens and they were then to be organized into work teams with labor applied to industrial or rural work. Immediately after the Second Five Year Plan, Mao initiated the Cultural Revolution. A treaty was made between the Chinese and the Russians for support. Industry came under state ownership and China's farmers began to be organised into collectives. Mao Zedong, principal Chinese Marxist theorist, soldier, and statesman who led his country’s communist revolution and served as chairman (chief of state) of the People’s Republic of China from 1949 until his death in 1976. 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“The implementation of Mao Zeodong’s policies … Mao realized that he could no longer rely on the Soviet government and he sought ways to break free. Along with this, bank interests were brought down. One very extreme form of humiliation was when the people were force to stand with their backs bent and arms outstretched which was described as an "air-plane position. Mao’s own position in government had weakened after the failure of his “Great Leap Forward” (1958-60) and the economic crisis that followed. This, along with the Cultural Revolution, changed China forever. Some remember how they searched for apricot pits fallen from trees in order to press them for oil or boil them for porridge. Mao's cult of personality, party purges, and political policies reflect Mao's esteem of these traditional Chinese ideals and history. This treaty was called the Sino-Russian Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance and it was formed in 1950. It promised China support in every field. In 1962, Mao started a sexual relationship with a 14-year-old girl. As the First Five Year Plan, it moved China forward a great deal. (Spence, 1990) Due to the new economic development, a great deal of capital was required and this was provided from agriculture, which was the focus of the Chinese economy at the time. The Communists and KMT were again temporarily allied during eight years of war with Japan (1937-1945), but shortly after the end of World War Two, civil war broke out between them. "Bank rates that had been 70 percent to 80 percent per annum in December 1949 were brought down to 18 percent in 1950, and to 3 percent in 1951." 115 likes. In May of 1958, Liu Shaoqi announced the program for Mao. Chiang Kai-shek fled to the island of Taiwan. "(Spence, 1990) Cities were transformed a great deal, sometimes costing the cities aesthetically. Many of the output goals were met or exceeded with few exceptions. These people included children who suffered from the years of malnutrition brought on by the Great Leap. Free resources to assist you with your university studies! "China was basically a land of individual peasant owner-cultivators. A small group of Mao's followers, along with his wife Jiang Qing and other radicals, the party was purged and soon both Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping were removed from their posts and subjected to an enormous amount of criticism and humiliation, their families included. ""Thousands of intellectuals were beaten to death or died of their injuries. Communist is a society where people 's properties are owned. During this time, religion was frowned upon and temples and religious monuments were destroyed or damaged. 2) Mao shut down schools and he ordered the Red Guards to attack traditional values and "bourgeois" things and to publicly criticize party officials in order to test them. Expensive equipment was ruined simply due to not being well informed. We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk. In an attempt to re-assert his authority, Mao launched the 'Cultural Revolution' in 1966, aiming to purge the country of 'impure' elements and revive the revolutionary spirit. He took advantage of the financial state that the peasants were in. The private ownership of domestic animals was even prohibited. The Great Leap Forward . The choice of Kao Kang to be the chairman was a clear dependence on the Soviet Union as he was chosen by Mao. For example, the remaining great city walls of Peking were demolished in order to create flaw new boulevards, and many underground shelters were built in case of nuclear attacks from the United States. Everything was described in military terminology; for example, labor was described as a military campaign. A blind faith as chairman Mao Zedong remains the most honored figure in the Chinese had Great... 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